Using Hash Fetch

I fat-finger my code a lot and produce a lot of typos. I do test driven development so it’s not as bad, but what’s annoying is when I typo a hash key and the test blows up with a failure due to a nil – resulting in a very confusing error message.

The issue

One of my tests look like this:

Given(:instance) { klass.new(payment: payment, signup: signup) }
context "payment data" do
  When(:line) { instance.payment_hash }
  Then { line[:amount] == 99.0 }
  Then { line[:shipment_address] == "999 papaya triangle windsor alabama 06040 united states" }
  Then { line[:bundle_ids] == "88 44" }
  Then { line[:bundle_names] == "test_bundle_88 test_bundle_44" }
  Then { line[:payment_id] == 859017 }
  Then { line[:payment_state] == "paid" }
  Then { line[:payment_date] == "2015-11-11" }
end

Can you see the typo?

I couldn’t – not immediately. At least, not until I saw the code implementation:

def payment_hash
  {
    amount: @payment.amount,
    shipping_address: address_to_s(@payment.order.shipping_address),
    bundle_ids: @payment.order_lines.map {|o| o.bundle.id}.join(' '),
    bundle_names: @payment.order_lines.map {|o| o.bundle.name}.join(' '),
    payment_id: @payment.id,
    payment_state: @payment.state,
    payment_date: date_to_excel_string(@payment.created_at),
  }
end

Can you see it now?

The soultion

I eventually figured out where the typo was, and was super annoyed that I changed all my hash key access for this test to Hash#fetch:

Given(:instance) { klass.new(payment: payment, signup: signup) }
context "payment data" do
  When(:line) { instance.payment_hash }
  Then { line.fetch(:amount) == 99.0 }
  Then { line.fetch(:shipping_address) == "999 papaya triangle windsor alabama 06040 united states" }
  Then { line.fetch(:bundle_ids) == "88 44" }
  Then { line.fetch(:bundle_names) == "test_bundle_88 test_bundle_44" }
  Then { line.fetch(:payment_id) == 859017 }
  Then { line.fetch(:payment_state) == "paid" }
  Then { line.fetch(:payment_date) == "2015-11-11" }
end

Hash#fetch is way to get the value from a hash, given a hash key. It’s very similar to #[] with some slight (and in this case, effective) differences.

From the documentation:

fetch(key [, default] ) → obj

fetch(key) {| key | block } → obj

Returns a value from the hash for the given key. If the key can’t be found, there are several options: With no other arguments, it will raise an KeyError exception; if default is given, then that will be returned; if the optional code block is specified, then that will be run and its result returned.

h = { "a" => 100, "b" => 200 }
h.fetch("a")                            #=> 100
h.fetch("z", "go fish")                 #=> "go fish"
h.fetch("z") { |el| "go fish, #{el}"}   #=> "go fish, z"

The following example shows that an exception is raised if the key is not found and a default value is not supplied.

h = { "a" => 100, "b" => 200 }
h.fetch("z")

produces:

prog.rb:2:in `fetch': key not found (KeyError)
 from prog.rb:2

The last example is what I gain the most benefit from: it clarifies exactly where I went wrong. In the first code example I gave, the issue was I was using shipment_address instead of shipping_address and since they both looked almost the same I initially thought that the value was indeed nil.

By using Hash#fetch I completely sidestep the problem of confusing error messages and get a clearer one that tells me the key I’m trying to access does not actually exist.

FAQ

You said you’re doing TDD, but I can see that the typo is in the middle of the test! If you’re really doing TDD then you should have caught the bug at the last line!!

It’s true, I caught the bug at the last line (and catching the typo was a lot easier because I knew exactly where to look). You’ll notice that the hash keys are alphabetically arranged; I moved the typo’d line in the middle as an artistic decision. As Mark Twain famously said: never let the truth get in the way of a good story. :P


How can this be used to avoid && when trying to access a deep nested hash like this:

hash = {foo:{bar: {baz: "hello world"}}}
puts hash[:foo][:bar][:baz] if hash[:foo] && hash[:foo][:bar]

You can use the default value option during the call:

hash = {foo:{bar: {baz: "hello world"}}}
puts hash.fetch(:foo, {}).fetch(:bar, {}).fetch(:baz, nil)

Or, if you’re using Ruby 2.3 you can use Hash#dig

hash = {foo:{bar: {baz: "hello world"}}}
puts hash.dig(:foo, :bar, :baz)

If you’re not yet using Ruby 2.3 (which is true at the time of this post’s publication) then you can use a gem to add that method call.

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